Scientists discover how to turn light into matter after 80-year quest

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This shows theories describing light and matter interactions.
Credit: Oliver Pike, Imperial College London

Imperial College London physicists have discovered how to create matter from light — a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorised 80 years ago.

In just one day over several cups of coffee in a tiny office in Imperial’s Blackett Physics Laboratory, three physicists worked out a relatively simple way to physically prove a theory first devised by scientists Breit and Wheeler in 1934.

Breit and Wheeler suggested that it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing together only two particles of light (photons), to create an electron and a positron — the simplest method of turning light into matter ever predicted. The calculation was found to be theoretically sound but Breit and Wheeler said that they never expected anybody to physically demonstrate their prediction. It has never been observed in the laboratory and past experiments to test it have required the addition of massive high-energy particles.

The new research, published in Nature Photonics, shows for the first time how Breit and Wheeler’s theory could be proven in practice. This ‘photon-photon collider’, which would convert light directly into matter using technology that is already available, would be a new type of high-energy physics experiment. This experiment would recreate a process that was important in the first 100 seconds of the universe and that is also seen in gamma ray bursts, which are the biggest explosions in the universe and one of physics’ greatest unsolved mysteries.

The scientists had been investigating unrelated problems in fusion energy when they realised what they were working on could be applied to the Breit-Wheeler theory. The breakthrough was achieved in collaboration with a fellow theoretical physicist from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, who happened to be visiting Imperial.

Demonstrating the Breit-Wheeler theory would provide the final jigsaw piece of a physics puzzle which describes the simplest ways in which light and matter interact (see image in notes to editors). The six other pieces in that puzzle, including Dirac’s 1930 theory on the annihilation of electrons and positrons and Einstein’s 1905 theory on the photoelectric effect, are all associated with Nobel Prize-winning research (see image).

Professor Steve Rose from the Department of Physics at Imperial College London said: “Despite all physicists accepting the theory to be true, when Breit and Wheeler first proposed the theory, they said that they never expected it be shown in the laboratory. Today, nearly 80 years later, we prove them wrong. What was so surprising to us was the discovery of how we can create matter directly from light using the technology that we have today in the UK. As we are theorists we are now talking to others who can use our ideas to undertake this landmark experiment.”

The collider experiment that the scientists have proposed involves two key steps. First, the scientists would use an extremely powerful high-intensity laser to speed up electrons to just below the speed of light. They would then fire these electrons into a slab of gold to create a beam of photons a billion times more energetic than visible light.

The next stage of the experiment involves a tiny gold can called a hohlraum (German for ’empty room’). Scientists would fire a high-energy laser at the inner surface of this gold can, to create a thermal radiation field, generating light similar to the light emitted by stars.

They would then direct the photon beam from the first stage of the experiment through the centre of the can, causing the photons from the two sources to collide and form electrons and positrons. It would then be possible to detect the formation of the electrons and positrons when they exited the can.

For more and the original story follow the link below.

Source: Science Daily

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Android malware tool iBanking commands $5000 price for attackers

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Evolving malicious tool adopts service model, grows increasingly complex

The market for malware tools is expanding, including the purchase of pre-made tools for a hefty fee from underground developers. One such tool aimed at Android, iBanking, promises to conduct a number of malicious actions including intercepting text messages, stealing phone information, pulling geolocation data and constructing botnets with infected devices. All it would cost to obtain the program is $5000, even after its source code leaked earlier in the year.

The iBanking malware has evolved from simply being able to steal SMS information, but has grown to be a much larger Trojan tool for would be data thieves. Applications injected with the iBanking code have hit the marketplace costumed as legitimate banking and social media apps as a way for users to be convinced to use them.

The apps often appear to users who have already been infected on desktop machines, prompting them to fill in personal information which then leads to an SMS message with a download link. Once the app is downloaded and installed, it begins feeding information to the attacker.

According to Symantec the tool is “one of the most expensive pieces of malware” the company has seen, especially for one with that sets up a service business. Other malware applications have paved the way for things like customer support and HTML control panels, but not at such a high price.

Part of the larger problem with iBanking is that it resists most attempts to reverse engineer the software, giving it a better strength against those trying to craft similar tools says an article from Ars Technica. iBanking uses encryption and code obfuscation to hide the commands and actions it carries out. This prevents researchers from breaking down the process of the malware, as well as keeping others from using the code to clone more software.

Source: Electronista

Implant Device for Stopping Uncontrolled Seizures

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Surgeons at Comprehensive Epilepsy Center Say Pacemaker-like RNS System Provides Innovative Approach to Stop Seizures Before They Start

Newswise — NYU Langone Medical Center last month became the first hospital outside of a clinical trial site to implant a pacemaker-like device in the brain that may be a game-changer for patients with epilepsy.

The device, called the RNS System, was implanted April 17, 2014 in a patient with seizures that previously could not be controlled with medication, or intractable epilepsy, by Werner Doyle, MD, an associate professor in the Department of Neurosurgery at NYU Langone. The patient has recovered completely from the surgery.

The first-of-its-kind device is similar to an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which delivers electrical pulses to the heart to prompt it to beat a normal rhythm and provides a new alternative treatment to vagus nerve stimulation and surgical removal of the focus site – parts in the brain where the seizures originate — for people with intractable epilepsy.

Prior to last month’s surgery, the only implants of the seizure-reducing medical device took place at U.S. medical centers that had previously researched the device’s effectiveness and safety, making NYU Langone the first non-study hospital in the U.S. and New York metropolitan area to offer the RNS System to patients.

“Medically intractable epilepsy is often a debilitating disorder that puts sufferers at risk from sudden loss of consciousness and uncontrolled movements. It stigmatizes patients and restricts their independence,” said Dr. Doyle. “Epilepsy surgery is an important therapeutic option for patients, which can significantly or completely control their seizures and return their lives to normal. The RNS device improves our ability to control seizures with surgery and now offers patients who may not have been surgical candidates in the past a surgical option.”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 2.3 million Americans suffer from epilepsy, with about one in 26 people expected to be diagnosed in their lifetimes. Approximately one-third of patients do not respond to medications and face major challenges with daily living. Uncontrolled seizures may interfere with normal activities such as working, going to school and driving. Patients also face increased risk for anxiety, depression, injury, brain damage, and in rare cases, death.

The RNS System, manufactured by NeuroPace Inc. of Mountain View, Calif., is a responsive stimulation device that’s implanted in the skull along with brain electrodes to detect abnormal electrical activity in the brain associated with seizures. After two or more weeks of recording the activity, doctors program the device to specifically respond to these abnormal signals by delivering imperceptible electrical pulses to the brain that normalize the activity. The device essentially “reboots” the portion of the brain where the seizure is originating, thereby effectively interrupting the abnormal electrical activity before it spreads or causes its unwanted effects.

The RNS System received pre-market approval from the Food and Drug Administration in November 2013 to treat patients’ seizures that have not been controlled by two or more antiepileptic medications.

In clinical trials performed at medical centers across the U.S., including at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in New Jersey by Dr. Doyle and Orrin Devinsky, MD, director of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at NYU Langone, 55 percent of patients experienced a 50 percent or greater reduction in seizures two years post implantation.

“The RNS System represents one of the most important and innovative therapies to treat people with epilepsy,” says Dr. Devinsky. “This new surgical therapy uses information to target and shut down points in the brain where seizures start without removing tissue, providing a novel option for patients with uncontrolled seizures.”

For more information follow the source link below.

Source: Newswise

New ‘T-ray’ tech converts light to sound for weapons detection, medical imaging

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ANN ARBOR—A device that essentially listens for light waves could help open up the last frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum—the terahertz range.

So-called T-rays, which are light waves too long for human eyes to see, could help airport security guards find chemical and other weapons. They might let doctors image body tissues with less damage to healthy areas. And they could give astronomers new tools to study planets in other solar systems. Those are just a few possible applications.

But because terahertz frequencies fall between the capabilities of the specialized tools presently used to detect light, engineers have yet to efficiently harness them. The U-M researchers demonstrated a unique terahertz detector and imaging system that could bridge this terahertz gap.

“We convert the T-ray light into sound,” said Jay Guo, U-M professor of electrical engineering and computer science, mechanical engineering, and macromolecular science and engineering. “Our detector is sensitive, compact and works at room temperature, and we’ve made it using an unconventional approach.”

The sound the detector makes is too high for human ears to hear.

The terahertz gap is a sliver between the microwave and infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum—the range of light’s wavelengths and frequencies. That spectrum spans from the longest, low-energy radio waves that can carry songs to our receivers to the shortest, high-energy gamma rays that are released when nuclear bombs explode and radioactive atoms decay.

In between are the microwave frequencies that can cook food or transport cell phone signals, the infrared that enables heat vision technologies, the visible wavelengths that light and color our world, and X-rays that give doctors a window under our skin.

For more information and the full story follow the source link below.

Source: University of Michigan News

BlackBerry’s ultra-secure chat gives each message its own security key

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Chat systems like BBM (BlackBerry Messenger) are typically very secure, since they’re encrypted end-to-end. However, they still have a glaring flaw: if intruders do crack the code, they can see everything you’ve said. That’s where BlackBerry’s soon-to-launch BBM Protected comes in. As the company showed at its BlackBerry Experience Washington event (CrackBerry’s video is below), the new service makes it extremely difficult to spy on an entire conversation. Each message has its own random encryption key; even a very clever data thief would only get one tidbit at a time, so it could take ages to piece together a full chat.

BBM Protected will only be available for corporate-controlled BlackBerry devices when it launches as part of an enterprise suite in June, although that will include anything running the now-ancient BlackBerry OS 6 or higher. The chat client won’t be available for personal phones running BlackBerry Balance until early fall, while Android and iOS users will have to wait until late fall or early winter. All the same, it might be worth holding out if you’re really, truly worried that someone is watching your private discussions.

Source: Engadget

Rugged, wildly modular tablet runs Android and Linux

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CrossfirePro running Android

Entegra announced a rugged, modular tablet that’s configurable for a wide range of environments and applications, and supports both Android 4.2 and Linux.

Entegra’s CrossfirePro is unlike any tablet you’ve encountered: it’s the consummate chameleon of rugged slates, boasting a modularity that starts with its snap-in Qseven computer-on-module processing core and extends to nearly every aspect of its I/O and software. Though it ships standard with a 1.86GHz quad-core Intel Bay Trail M-series N2930 processor, the COM-based core supports alternatives ranging from faster or slower Intel and AMD x86 CPUs, to ARM-based SoCs. It also accepts I/O add-ons such as barcode scanners, magnetic strip readers, fingerprint scanners, smart card and NFC readers, and a variety of custom modules, says the company.

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CrossfirePro with a rear-mounted cardswipe/keypad module

Entegra also offers three docks for the CrossfirePro, which support its use in office, point-of-sale, and vehicular environments. These would presumably be accompanied by snap-in or add-on modules, operating systems, and application software suitable to each market.

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CrossfirePro Desk Dock
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CrossfirePro Vehicle Dock
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CrossfirePro Point-of-sale Dock

The photos below show how the Qseven COM and mSATA storage devices snap into compartments in the rear of the tablet.

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CrossfirePro’s configurable Qseven COM and mSATA storage device

To support such an extensive array of modularity, Entegra designed a unique mainboard that’s controlled by a PIC microcontroller. The PIC chip serves as a “traffic cop” to initialize and manage the options it discovers upon power-up, as illustrated in the diagram below.

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CrossfirePro’s PIC µC discovers modules and configures the tablet accordingly on power-up

For a full list of the specs follow the source link below.

Source: LinuxGizmos.com

IT malpractice: Doc operates on server, costs hospitals $4.8M

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Image source Alegrasoft

New York Presbyterian and Columbia University Medical Center settle with HHS to end probe into 2010 patient data leak

An inadvertent data leak that stemmed from a physician’s attempt to reconfigure a server cost New York Presbyterian (NYP) Hospital and Columbia University (CU) Medical Center $4.8 million to settle with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

The hospitals and HHS announced the voluntary settlement, which ends an inquiry into the incident, on Wednesday. New York Presbyterian will pay $3.3 million, while Columbia will pay $1.5 million to settle the complaint.

The hospitals also agreed to take “substantive” corrective action, including development of a new risk management plan and new policies and procedures for handling patient data. The HHS will also be provided with periodic progress updates under the agreement.

“Our cases against NYP and CU should remind health care organizations of the need to make data security central to how they manage their information systems,” the statement said.

The $3.3 million settlement with New York Presbyterian is the largest ever obtained by the HHS for a violation of HIPAA security rules.

The breach occurred in 2010 after a physician at Columbia University Medical Center attempted to “deactivate” a personally owned computer from an New York Presbyterian network segment that contained sensitive patient health information, according to the HHS.

The two health care organizations have a mutual agreement under which CU faculty members serve as physicians at NYP. The two entities operate a shared network that links to systems contacting patient health data at NYP.
It is not clear why a physician had a personally owned system connected to the network, or why he was attempting to “deactivate” it.

In a joint statement, the two hospitals blamed the leakage on an “errantly configured” computer server. The error left patient status, vital signs, laboratory results, medication information, and other sensitive data on about 6,800 individuals accessible to all via the Web.

The leak was discovered after the hospitals received a complaint from an individual who discovered personal health information about his or her deceased partner on the Web.

An investigation by the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR) found that neither CU nor NYP had implemented adequate security protections, or undertook a risk analysis or audit to identify the location of sensitive patient health information on the joint network.

The OCR also faulted New York Presbyterian not ensuring that only properly authorized systems could access patient data.

In an email, NYP and CU said they have taken substantial steps to strengthen data security controls following the breach.

“For more than three years, we have been cooperating with HHS by voluntarily providing information about the incident in question,” the statement said. “We also have continually strengthened our safeguards to enhance our information systems and processes, and will continue to do so under the terms of the agreement with HHS.”

HHS has also extracted settlements from several other healthcare entities over the past two years as it beefs up the effort to crack down on HIPAA violations.

In April, it reached a $2 million settlement with with Concentra Health Services and QCA Health Plan. Both organizations reported losing laptops containing unencrypted patient data.

Last December, a Massachusetts dermatology clinic agreed to pay $150,000 to settle an HHS investigation into the loss of a thumb drive containing unencrypted patient health information.

Source: Computer World

BlackBerry Tumblr app Trapeez available in Beta Zone

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The native Tumblr app Trapeez developed by Kisai Labs has a beta version, version 1.5.0.0 available in BlackBerry Beta Zone.

Google Chrome working on latest BlackBerry 10.3 leak

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Using the latest leaked version of BlackBerry 10.3 software version 10.3.0.296. I haven’t yet had a chance to try any other Google apps and in earlier versions of BlackBerry 10 you could not use any apps that require Google Services. A couple more screen shots of Chrome running perfectly on my Z10.

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Is CryptoLocker Ransomware arriving on Android?

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The U.S. version of the Android malware purporting to be CrytoLocker.

CrytoLocker Ransomware, the malware that locked up PCs until you paid off $300 and the so-called Menace of the Year, may have jumped from Windows to Android.

ThreatPost reports that the Reveton cyber-crime gang is advertising an Android version of CryptoLocker. This program seems to have no way to actively infect an Android smartphone or tablet. To get it you have to actually download the APK file.

To trick you into doing this, the malware masquerades as a porn application. As you’d expect, this malware is designed to hide out on porn sites. If I’d said it once, I’ve said it a thousand times, never download Android apps from third-party sites of any sort and don’t, no matter what operating system you’re running, download programs from porn sites.

If you’re fool enough to do this anyway and get infected, any time you try to use your device, you’ll be shown a warning display that accuses you of viewing child pornography or equally ugly and illegal porn. It then goes on to say that you’ll face a jail term of five to 11 years, unless, of course, you make a payment of $300 via MoneyPak. This is a legitimate pre-paid debt card service.

At this time, it’s unclear if this malware, labeled Koler.A really is a port of CryptoLocker or simply a malware program using the infamous ransomware name in vain. From the limited experience security companies have had with this program it seems most likely it is not actually encrypting your files.

That said, getting rid of Koler.A is currently a major annoyance. Android anti-virus programs don’t have a fix for it yet. If you can move the program’s icon to the trash, however, that “seems” to get rid of the program. The trick is you only have five seconds to delete it before the ransomware screen takes over your display.

For more information and the original story follow the source link below.

Source: ZD Net